2018 Nobel Prize Ceremony

Physics


Tools made of light

Their inventions have revolutionised laser physics. Extremely small objects and incredibly rapid processes are now being seen in a new light. Advanced precision instruments are opening up unexplored areas of research and a multitude of industrial and medical applications.

The Laureatre

Arthur Ashkin, Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland, Ill. Niklas Elmehed. © Nobel Media

Arthur Ashkin

Born: 2 September 1922, New York, NY, USA Affiliation at the time of the award: Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, NJ, USA Prize motivation: “for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems.” Prize share: 1/2

Gérard Mourou

Born: 22 June 1944, Albertville, France

Affiliation at the time of the award: École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Prize motivation: “for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses.”

Prize share: 1/4

Donna Strickland

Born: 27 May 1959, Guelph, Canada

Affiliation at the time of the award: University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada

Prize motivation: “for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses.”


Prize share: 1/4

Chemistry


Power of evolution

This year’s Nobel Laureates have been inspired by the power of evolution and used the same principles – genetic change and selection – to develop proteins that solve humankind’s chemical problems.

The Laureate

Frances H. Arnold, George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter, Ill. Niklas Elmehed. © Nobel Media

Frances H. Arnold

Born: 25 July 1956, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Affiliation at the time of the award: California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, CA, USA

Prize motivation: “for the directed evolution of enzymes.”

Prize share: 1/2

George P. Smith

Born: 10 March 1941, Norwalk, CT, USA

Affiliation at the time of the award: University of Missouri, Columbia, USA

Prize motivation: “for the phage display of peptides and antibodies.”

Prize share: 1/4

Sir Gregory P. Winter

Born: 14 April 1951, Leicester, United Kingdom

Affiliation at the time of the award: MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Prize motivation: “for the phage display of peptides and antibodies.”

Prize share: 1/4

Physiology or Medicine


Cancer therapy: Releasing the brakes of immunity

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018 was awarded jointly to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.”

The Laureate

James P. Allison, Tasuku Honjo, Ill. Niklas Elmehed. © Nobel Media

James P. Allison

Born: 7 August 1948, Alice, TX, USA

Affiliation at the time of the award: University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA, Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, San Francisco, CA, USA

Prize motivation: “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.”

Prize share: 1/2

Tasuku Honjo

Born: 27 January 1942, Kyoto, Japan

Affiliation at the time of the award: Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

Prize motivation: “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.”

Prize share: 1/2

Peace


Courageously combating war crimes and seeking justice for victims

Both laureates have made a crucial contribution to focusing attention on, and combating, war crimes. Denis Mukwege is the helper who has devoted his life to defending these victims. Nadia Murad is the witness who tells of the abuses perpetrated against herself and others. Each of them in their own way has helped to give greater visibility to war-time sexual violence, so that the perpetrators can be held accountable for their actions.

The Laureate

Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad, Ill. Niklas Elmehed. © Nobel Media

Denis Mukwege

Born: 1 March 1955, Bukavu, Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of the Congo)

Prize motivation: “for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict.”

Prize share: 1/2

Nadia Murad

Born: 1993, Kocho

Prize motivation: “for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict.”

Prize share: 1/2

Economic Sciences 


Integrating innovation and climate with economic growth

This year’s Laureates have designed methods for addressing some of our time’s most basic and pressing questions about how we create long-term sustained and sustainable economic growth. Their contributions provide us with fundamental insights into the causes and consequences of technological innovation and climate change.

The Laureate

William D. Nordhaus and Paul M. Romer, Ill. Niklas Elmehed. © Nobel Media

William D. Nordhaus

Born: 31 May 1941, Albuquerque, NM, USA

Affiliation at the time of the award: Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA

Prize motivation: “for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis.”

Prize share: 1/2

Paul M. Romer

Born: Denver, CO, USA

Affiliation at the time of the award: NYU Stern School of Business, New York, NY, USA

Prize motivation: “for integrating technological innovations into long-run macroeconomic analysis.”

Prize share: 1/2

Nobel Prize Official Website: https://www.nobelprize.org

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